A 4-year old malnourished boy presented with acute abdominal pain, vomiting, and constipation for 3 days. His father is a farmer and all the

Question

A 4-year old malnourished boy presented with acute abdominal pain, vomiting, and constipation for 3 days. His father is a farmer and all the family helped the father work in the fields. They usually ate vegetables from the field without washing. At the time of admission, laboratory investigations were performed including a Full Blood Count with Differential WBC. Abdominal X-Ray showed evidence of small bowel obstruction and ultrasonography demonstrated parallel paired lines like “railway tracks” in the intestinal lumen that was suggestive of helminths. Stool microscopy confirmed the presence of eggs from Ascaris lumbricoides, a giant parasitic roundworm.

Outline the innate and adaptive immune response to a helminth infection paying particular attention to the following:
i. The cell types involved in this immune response
ii. The inflammatory mediators that are released
iii. The physiological impact of these inflammatory mediators

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Rose 3 months 2022-02-11T08:49:26+00:00 1 Answer 0 views 0

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    2022-02-11T08:50:44+00:00

    Answer:

    Client Profile Mr. Jamal is a middle-aged farmer living in a small village. He is the family head and has five children. The family’s income is from subsistence farming and the children look after the goats and sheep. All the family members live in a small hut with their cattle, which also serves as a kitchen. Mariam is 11-year-old, and is the second child of the family. She likes playing with her friends. She helps her family by looking after the goats and sheep. She used to be very cheerful and vibrant in the
    family except having some occasional attacks of sore throat, which usually disappears by itself after some time. Her family has never worried about it, as it usually was self-limiting and benign, in their belief. Years back, she once had the usual sore throat, which was left un-attended. Two weeks later, she developed sudden onset of fever, joint pain, on and off joint swelling along with chest pain and easy fatigability. Her father then consulted a respected traditional healer who gave him an un-ident sedimentation rate of 110, • CRP of 9.5, • Chest X-ray with cardiomegaly present. • EKG reveals a prolonged PR interval. • ASO titer is 754 and streptozyme is 1:600.

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